Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Golden Eagle Golden Eagle wallpapers

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. Once widespread across the Holarctic, it has disappeared from many of the more heavily populated areas. Despite being extirpated from some its former range or uncommon, the species is still fairly ubiquitous, being present in Eurasia, North America, and parts of Africa. The highest density of nesting Golden Eagles in the world lies in southern Alameda County, California. They will also eat carrion if prey is scarce, as well as reptiles. Birds, including large species up to the size of swans and cranes as well as ravens and Greater Black-backed Gulls have all been recorded as prey. They have even been known to attack and kill fully grown roe deer.

They are monogamous and may remain together for several years or possibly for life. Golden Eagles nest in high places including cliffs, trees, or human structures such as telephone poles. They build huge nests to which they may return for several breeding years.

Golden Eagle is a large, dark brown raptor with broad wings. Its size is variable: it ranges from 66 to 100 cm (26 to 39 in) in length and it has a typical wingspan of 1.8 to 2.34 m (5.9 to 7.7 ft). In the largest race (A. c. daphanea) males and females weigh 4.05 kg (8.9 lb) and 6.35 kg (14.0 lb). In the smallest subspecies (A. c. japonensis), the sexes weigh, respectively, 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) and 3.25 kg (7.2 lb). The maximum size of the huge eagles is a matter of some debate, although captive birds have been measured to a wingspan of 2.81 m (9.2 ft) and a mass of 12.1 kg (27 lb). Sexes are similar in plumage but are considerably dimorphic in size, with females rather larger than males. Adults are primarily brown, with gold on the back of the crown and nape, and some grey on the wings and tail.

Golden Eagles usually mate for life. They build several eyries within their territory and use them alternately for several years. These nests consist of heavy tree branches, upholstered with grass when in use. Old eyries may be 2 metres (6.6 ft) in diameter and 1 metre (3.3 ft) in height, as the eagles repair their nests whenever necessary and enlarge them during each use. If the eyrie is situated on a tree, supporting tree branches may break because of the weight of the nest.

The eggs vary from all white to white with cinnamon or brown spots and blotches. They start incubation immediately after the first egg is laid, and after 40 to 45 days the young hatch.[citation needed] They are covered in fluffy white down and are fed for fifty days before they are able to make their first flight attempts and eat on their own. In most cases only the older chick survives, while the younger one dies without leaving the eyrie. This is due to the older chick having a few days' advantage in growth and consequently winning most squabbles for food. This strategy is useful for the species because it makes the parents' workload manageable even when food is scarce, while providing a reserve chick in case the first-born dies soon after hatching. Golden Eagles invest much time and effort in bringing up their young; once able to hunt on their own, most Golden Eagles survive many years, but mortality even among first-born nestlings is much higher, in particular in the first weeks after hatching.

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Blade Eagles

blade eagles catching the fish
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bactrian camel pictures

Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of central Asia. It is presently restricted in the wild to remote regions of the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts of Mongolia and Xinjiang. There are a small number of wild Bactrian camels still roaming the Mangystau Province of South West Kazakhstan. It is one of the two surviving species of camel. It has been discovered that a population of wild Bactrian camel lives within a part of the Gashun Gobi region of the Gobi Desert. This population is distinct from domesticated herds both in genetic makeup[8] and in behavior.[citation needed.

There are possibly as many as three regions in the genetic makeup that are distinctly different from domesticated camels and there is up to a 3% difference in the base genetic code. However, with so few wild camels, it is unclear what the natural genetic diversity within a population would have been. Bactrian camel was identified as one of the top ten "focal species" in 2007 by the Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) project, which prioritises unique and threatened species for conservation.

baby bactrian camel
bactrian camel
bactrian camel
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bactrian camel

Aye Aye pictures

These rare animals may not look like primates at first glance, but they are related to chimpanzees, apes, and humans.

Aye-ayes are dark brown or black and are distinguished by a bushy tail that is larger than their body. They also feature big eyes, slender fingers, and large, sensitive ears. Aye-ayes have pointed claws on all their fingers and toes except for their opposable big toes, which enable them to dangle from branches.

While perched aloft, the aye-aye taps on trees with its long middle finger and listens for wood-boring insect larvae moving under the bark. It employs the same middle finger to fish them out. The digit is also useful for scooping the flesh out of coconuts and other fruits that supplement the animal's insect diet. Many people native to Madagascar consider the aye-aye an omen of ill luck. For this reason they often have been killed on sight.

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Tuesday, October 4, 2011

grasshopper insect grasshopper insect mating

grasshopper is an insect of the suborder Caelifera in the order Orthoptera. To distinguish it from bush crickets or katydids, it is sometimes referred to as the short-horned grasshopper. They also have pinchers or mandibles that cut and tear off food. Those species that make easily heard noises usually do so by rubbing the hind femurs against the forewings or abdomen (stridulation), or by snapping the wings in flight. Tympana, if present, are on the sides of the first abdominal segment. The hind femora are typically long and strong, fitted for leaping. Generally they are winged, but hind wings are membranous while front wings (tegmina) are coriaceous and not fit for flight. Females are normally larger than males, with short ovipositors.

Only one of the 8000 species of grasshopper will only eat a single species of plant.
The digestive system of insects includes a foregut (stomodaeum, the mouth region), a midgut (mesenteron), and a hindgut (proctodaeum, the anal region). The mouth is distinct due to the presence of a mandible and salivary glands. The mandible can chew food very slightly and start mechanical digestion. Salivary glands digest the food chemically, though only carbohydrates in the grasses and such they eat. The mouth leads to the muscular pharynx, and through the esophagus to the crop. The crop has the ability to hold food. From the crop, food enters the gizzard, which has teeth like features in it. From there, food enters the stomach. In the stomach, digestive enzymes mix with the food to break it down.

salivary glands and midgut secrete digestive enzymes. The midgut secretes protease, lipase, amylase, and invertase, among other enzymes. The particular ones secreted vary with the different diets of grasshoppers.
The one closed organ, the dorsal vessel, extends from the head through the thorax to the hind end. It is a continuous tube with two regions: the heart, which is restricted to the abdomen; and the aorta, which extends from the heart to the head through the thorax. Haemolymph is pumped forward from the hind end and the sides of the body through a series of valved chambers, each of which contains a pair of lateral openings (ostia). The haemolymph continues to the aorta and is discharged through the front of the head.
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African monkeys cute african monkeys pics and wallpapers

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Saturday, October 1, 2011

Black mamba snakes

Black mamba snakes life history:
black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) is the longest venomous snake in Africa, averaging around 2.5 meters (8.2 ft), and sometimes growing up to 4.3 meters (14 ft). Its name is derived from the black colouration inside the mouth rather than the actual colour of the skin which varies from dull yellowish-green to a gun-metal grey. It is the fastest snake in the world, capable of moving at 4.32 to 5.4 metres per second (16–20 km/h, 10–12 mph). black mamba's back skin colour is olive, brownish, gray, or sometimes khaki. The adult snake's length is on average 2.5 meters (8.2 ft) but some specimens have reached lengths of 4.3 to 4.5 meters (14 to 15 ft). Black mambas weigh about 1.6 kilograms (3.5 lb). on average. The species is the second longest venomous snake in the world, exceeded in length only by the king cobra. black mamba lives in Africa, occupying the following range: Northeast Democratic Republic of the Congo, southwestern Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, Eastern Uganda, Tanzania, southwards to Mozambique, Swaziland, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana to KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa, and Namibia; then northeasterly through Angola to southeastern Zaire. The black mamba is not commonly found above altitudes of 1000 metres (3280.8 feet), although the distribution of black mamba does reach 1800 metres (5905.5 feet) in Kenya and 1650 metres (5413.3 feet) in Zambia. The black mamba was also recorded in 1954 in West Africa in the Dakar region of Senegal.

The majority of human attacks occur in the sugarcane fields of east and southern Africa in which are employed thousands of workers for manual labour, as cane growing is not a highly mechanised industry.
It is known to be capable of reaching speeds of around 20 kilometers per hour (12 mph), traveling with up to a third of its body raised off the ground. Over long distances the black mamba can travel 11 to 19 kilometers per hour (6.8 to 12 mph), but in short bursts it can reach a speed of 16 to 20 kilometers per hour (9.9 to 12 mph),or even 23 kilometers per hour (14 mph) making it the fastest land snake. It is shy and secretive; it always seeks to escape when a confrontation occurs. If a black mamba is cornered it mimics a cobra by spreading a neck-flap, exposing its black mouth, and hissing.

Some of the components of the venom have a much more toxic LD50 value than the venom as a whole, for example α-dentrotoxin (or "Toxin 1") and γ-dendrotoxin (or "Toxin 7") had subcutaneous LD50 values of 0.09 µg and 0.12 µg per gram of white mice, respectively. Although only 10 to 15 mg is deadly to a human adult, its bite delivers about 100–120 mg of venom on average but they can deliver up to 400 mg of venom in a single bite. It is reported that before the antivenom was widely available, the mortality rate from a bite was 100 Black mamba bites can potentially kill a human within 20 minutes or less depending on the nature of the bite and the area bitten, but death usually occurs after 30–60 minutes on average, sometimes even taking up to three hours. British wildlife enthusiast Nathan Layton was bitten by a juvenile black mamba and died within minutes.

The fatality duration and rate depend on various factors, such as the health, size, age, psychological state of the human, the penetration of one or both fangs from the snake, amount of venom injected, location of the bite, and proximity to major blood vessels. In extreme cases, when the victim has received a large amount of venom, death can result within minutes from respiratory or cardiac arrest. This is especially true if the victim is bitten in the face or chest area, as a black mamba can rear up around one-third of its body from the ground which puts it at about four feet high. When warding off a threat, the black mamba delivers multiple strikes, injecting large amounts of virulently toxic venom with each strike, often landing bites on the body or head, unlike other snakes.

The dendrotoxins disrupt the exogenous process of muscle contraction by means of the sodium potassium pump. Toxin K is a selective blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels Toxin 1 inhibits the K+ channels at the pre and post-synaptic level in the intestinal smooth muscle. It also inhibits Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels from rat skeletal muscle‚ incorporated into planar bilayers (Kd = 90 nM in 50 mM KCl) Toxin 3 inhibits M4 receptors, while Toxin 7 inhibits M1 receptors. The calciseptine is a 60 amino acid peptide which acts as a smooth muscle relaxant and an inhibitor of cardiac contractions.

Cobra snakes

Cobra is a venomous snake belonging to the family Elapidae. However, not all snakes commonly referred to as cobras are of the same genus, or even of the same family. The name is short for cobra de capelo or cobra-de-capelo, which is Portuguese for "snake with hood", or "hood-snake". spitting cobras, a subset of Naja species with the ability to eject venom from its fangs in self-defense
any member of the genus Boulengerina, a.k.a. water cobras, a group of venomous elapids any member of the genus Pseudohaje, a.k.a. tree cobras, a group of venomous elapids found in Africa.
Paranaja multifasciata, a.k.a. the burrowing cobra, a venomous elapid species found in Africa
Ophiophagus hannah, a.k.a. the king cobra, a venomous elapid species found in India and southern Asia.
Hemachatus haemachatus, a.k.a. the ringhals or ring-necked spitting cobra, a venomous elapid species found in Africa.
Micrurus fulvius, a.k.a. the American cobra or eastern coral snake, a venomous elapid species found in the southeastern United States
Hydrodynastes gigas, a.k.a. the false water cobra, a mildly venomous colubrid species found in South America any member of the genus Naja, also known as typical cobras (with the characteristic ability to raise the front quarters of their bodies off the ground and flatten their necks in a threatening gesture), a group of venomous elapids found in Africa and Asia
Cobra mostly dengeous snakes
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